unarchitecte丨紫禁城紅牆茶室

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Last Updated on March 27, 2022 by Hi設計

紅牆茶室位於紫禁城東南角,這裡曾是明清兩代皇帝祭奠祖先的地方。牆內是原來皇家的聖地,牆外則是北京古城的基本背景肌理——老百姓居住的衚衕。不知從哪個年代開始,這段東圍牆截止到了這裡,在牆東外側的地下排水涵溝上蓋起了泵房、庫房和臨時宿舍,遮蔽住了這段宮牆的末端,牆內也成了勞動人民自由出入休閑息憩的地方。通過對宮牆內外景觀肌理的重新梳理,我們掀掉了遮蔽宮牆的屋蓋,將周邊的景觀以院落的形式介入到建築中來,造就了建築中的院落,同時也是院落中的建築。我們希望以輕鬆的方式,接續起一座連接傳統與現代、邊界與空間、宏偉與質樸、神聖與世俗、隱蔽與開放、嚴肅與荒謬之間交流的橋樑,以引發人們重新思考空間、景觀與設計在我們這個時代真正有意義的價值所在。

The Red-wall Teahouse is situated inside a public park which used to be the Ancestral Temple—a royal memorial temple forancestors southeast to the Forbidden City.The palace wall on the east side of the temple wrapped around the Forbidden City asthe second ring wall in which Tian’an Men functioned as the main gate.The wall had long been a symbol of social class division inold China,now nothing but a spatial threshold separating the imperial garden from the Hutong houses to the east.Duringmodern authority transitions,undocumented damage took down northern half of the wall.The renovation project took place right at the breakage of the wall.Two shabby warehouses were left on site unattended,oneattached to the red imperial wall and the other one set around three meters away north to the first one.As an immediate designreaction,the roof of the first warehouse was tipped down to reveal the body of the palace wall on the Hutong side.Then acluster of freestanding steel-frame tearooms were inserted into the middle of the‘unroofed garden’introducing courtyards inbetween the old and the new structures.The exterior of the north teahouse which had been kept in better shape was insulatedwith new cover material.Its interior was opened up to match modern program needs.It is,then,through such interplay of oldand new,volume and void,tradition and modern,solemnity and absurdness that unprecedented readings on local environmentstart to emerge.

▲原狀

▲入口院門

▲茶室主入口

城市猶如一個巨大的有機體,除了功能建築和公共空間外,在各個重要的功能場所之間還存在着非常豐富的邊界、間隙和緩衝地帶,它們是城市文化中容易發生變化的部分。一方面,它們有可能衰落、頹敗而無人問津,甚至成為危險的符號;另一方面,它們也有可能籍由偶然的機會而悄然生髮、欣欣向榮。

City behaves like a giant organ.Abundant boundary spaces,gaps and buffer areas among buildings and urban spaces arelocations most likely to grow and decline.On one hand,hey deteriorate as insufficient maintenance is carried out.On another,opportunities find their way to flourish and prosper in their own rights.

▲牆院

▲後院

紫禁城作為曾經的封建皇權的象徵,一直與周邊的衚衕民居有着清晰的邊界和明確的隔離,高聳、寬厚、堅固的宮牆直觀的表達了這樣的態度。然而隨着封建王朝的覆滅,原有的清晰整肅的舊秩序被打破了、消解了,原先的皇家禁地變成了博物館、公園,人民可以自由的出入。衚衕的蔓延、臨時搭建的庫房及保安宿舍侵佔了原來宮牆邊廓暢通的空間,城市空間的這個局部變得糾結、模糊、渾在一起了。

The Forbidden City,once as an iconic imagery of royal authority,displays clear separation from the Hutong houses beyond.Theheight,massiveness and solidity of its palace wall were a powerful demonstration of this absolute threshold.As the class-basedfeudalism turned into ashes in the last century,what was left of the royal garden was converted into a giant museum allowingunrestricted entrance for the public.As long as the loss of social hierarchy,Hutong space had extended outwards paying norespect for the ancient.As a result,worn warehouses were built attached to the palace wall regardless of any sense of integrity.This unique spot of the city,full of uncertainty,became ever blurry and twisted.

▲茶室外牆

▲茶室與宮牆的關係

▲整體環境

設計最大的挑戰來自於場地狹窄和封閉性。如何在狹小的空間中滿足業主多樣性的需求,並清晰的規劃出與宮牆內外複雜環境的呼應,包括臨界的衚衕里的常住居民的日照採光和視覺景觀等客觀需求。大家既要相安無事、互不干擾,又要互通有無、共享獨特的景觀環境,同時不破壞歷史遺迹的完整性。我們堅決避免在這裡出現國內舊區改造中流行的那種製造假古董、混淆歷史的庸俗作法,也沒走中庸討巧的竹簾畫扇式的傳統茶室式的裝飾主義,更不想在歷史遺迹上亂搞奇形怪狀的所謂現代風。我們希望的是創造一種平和、質樸的空間呈現,追求厚重歷史下怡然的生活常態,懷着清晰的自省去發現那些可以會心一笑的小驚喜。

Narrow and closeness was the main challenge of the project.Within the limited space,it is,first of all, essential to meet theprogram needs of the owner’s while,and at the same time,addressing the heritage environment on the inner side of the palacewall and living conditions of the Hutong dwellers on the other side.To balance individual privacy while sharing open landscape,to establish new built environment while preserving historical legacy were our fundamental tasks.It was also important that wetook critical stands against those who falsifies tradition by mimicking an imagery of old Chinese teahouse or those whosuperimpose arbitrary modern forms over historical heritage.We believe a genuine design with adequate self-retrospection onthe weight of history will sustain a smooth life full of small delightful moments.

▲吧台

▲北房內景

這個項目的新功能是要在宮牆的鄰邊設置一處幽靜的內部辦公場所,主人可以在這裡接待賓客,用品茶、賞畫、禪思等輕鬆內斂的方式增進溝通、籌劃事業。七個尺度大小不同的空間(從 3 平米到 20 平米),層層疊嵌在院落和園林中,內外形狀、圍合方式和構成材質各不相同,傢具以及照明形式也與之相適應,給一個閉塞頹敗的場所引入了鮮活的外部景觀,也成為新場景的一部分。

The owner asked for a quite office space for receiving business partners over tea time.Seven unique rooms,ranging from threeto twenty square meters cluster in the middle of courtyards and gardens displaying various shapes,enclosure and finishmaterials.Lighting and furnishing is designed to correspond to the shifting room scales.In the end,the set of spaces start toenliven the once obstructed environment turning into a contributing part of the new built environment.

▲中庭

景觀作為媒介,把分離的兩個區域,以及皇家園林、宮牆、毗鄰衚衕和茶室的單元空間有機的整合到一起。從內部空間與外部空間的轉換,到室內與庭院的混淆,進而將歷史和現代隔空交流,景觀最大限度的調動起了人們的感官功能。在此狹窄的範圍內,看似隨意的空間留白,反而更加能夠引導人們去探尋深邃豐富的空間體驗,引發靜謐安詳的悠遠冥思。我們希望景觀在這裡可以真正做到以少勝多。

As the medium,landscape helps to integrated previously separated royal garden,palace wall and Hutong space become organicparts of the overall coherent environment.Transition from one side to the other and from courtyard to interior is soft and blurry,through which history and modern collided and exchange.Through the landscape,we try to arouse visitors’sensitivity.Occasional void enriches movement and lures the exploration into the depth of the space.

▲南房銅室

▲南房雲室


最受歡迎的室內設計空間規劃攻略:


▲南房竹室

在這個項目中我們使用了很多種材質,這是一次有趣的探索和嘗試,也是對現今流行的所謂 “極簡風格”開了一個小小的玩笑。這裡既有自然材質(如石材、竹材、木材等),也有半人工材質(如金屬熱軋鋼板、不鏽鋼板、黃銅與青銅和粘土磚),還有合成材質(如玻璃、亞克力管、陽光板、盲溝、水泥複合板等),其實我們還借用了宮牆的深沉的紅赫色塗料和牆脊上燦爛的明黃的琉璃瓦,以及衚衕卷棚頂的灰瓦和院牆斑駁的雜色。我們嘗試去發掘這些材料的陌生的用法,探討如何讓它們出現在陌生的地方,如何能在同一場景中幻化出別緻而多樣的感受,就像我們突然面對這些有着幾百年歷史的宮牆一樣,彷彿是第一次認識它們,並且是在如此多元背景的當代重新認識它們。

In the project we experimented with a variety of materials,which seemed to have made a small joke on so called ‘minimalism’.There are natural materials like stone,amboo and wood,semi-synthetic materials like steel sheet,copper and brick andsynthetic materials like glass,polycarbonate board,cement board etc.Dark red paint and yellow encaustic tiles of the palace walland gray tiles on the pitch roofs of the Hutong houses also exerted influence on the materiality consideration of the project.Weexploited uncommon ways of using materials under the determination to extend their potentials for giving delicate sensations tothe special place,just like how we rediscover the ancient palace wall in complete modern setting with fresh perspectives.

▲區位圖

▲立面圖

▲總平面圖

▲平面圖

項目信息——

項目名稱:紫禁城紅牆茶室

建築事務所:unarchitecte

項目完成年份:2014

建築面積:280㎡

項目地址:北京紫禁城內東南角

攝影:unarchitecte

建築師:張赫天、張弘

攝影:王禕、陳溯、張赫天

Project information——

Project Name: The Forbidden City Red-wall Teahouse

Architects: unarchitecte

Completion Year: 2014

Gross Built Area: 280㎡

Address: the Ancestral Temple, the Forbidden City, Beijing, China

Architects in charge: ZHANG Hetian, ZHANG Hong

Photographer: CHEN Su, WANG Yi, ZHANG Hetian

作者 / May

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